CAP 201a - Computer Animation I

Lesson 5 - Chapter 4, Modeling (part Ib) and Chapter 5, Modeling (part II)


This lesson returns to modeling techniques. Objectives important to this lesson:

  1. Modeling a hand
  2. Building the red rocket

Despite the short number of objectives, we will cover a lot of material in this lesson. We will start by returning to chapter 4, for the lesson on modeling a hand, beginning on page 167.

Project: modeling a hand

Project Exercise 1: Starting the palm 

This exercise starts on page 167.

  1. Open a new scene file. You will not need resources for this project.
  2. Use the Perspective viewport. Follow the instructions in the text to create a box with the Keyboard Entry rollout. (Length=90, width=150, height=30) Note the instruction to leave the x, y, and z parameters at 0.
    Question 1: What is the effect of setting the axis parameters at 0 when creating an object by this method?
  3. On the Modify panel, change the number of segments for the box as instructed: Length Segs=4, Width Segs=3, and Height Segs=1. The box will look like it is subdivided into twelve smaller boxes.
  4. The illustration at the top of page 168 will show you how the box will evolve in the exercises. It may help to imagine this as the start of a right hand that is palm down on a table. (Or on a desk, or a dissecting tray, or whatever mental image you want to use.)
  5. Step 5 says to convert the box to an Editable Poly. It does not say how, since the authors assume you have learned this in another lesson.
    Question 2: How do you convert the box into an Editable Poly?
  6. As the text explains, the purpose of the next steps is to allow each of the four fingers of the hand to project at a different angle. (The thumb comes later.) In the Modifier stack, open the Editable Poly object, and select the Edge sub-object.
  7. Select the edge indicated in the second illustration on page 168. Note: it is important to select the correct edge (or polygon) in each step of this tutorial. If you proceed and your scene does not resemble the associated illustration in the text, use the undo button and try again.
  8. Turn on the Lock Selection feature as instructed. (Note: when this feature is turned on, you can still add and remove sub-objects from your selection set with a ctrl-click.)
  9. The authors seem to be trying to teach you about the hot keys for the program. If you are not the type of person who can click with one hand while you type with the other, don't worry about it: just click the appropriate button. In this case, click the Select and Move button on the main toolbar.
    For this sequence of steps, select the necessary edge in the Perspective viewport, then move it in the Top viewport. The text is concerned about your moving the edge in more than one axis. Move it in the x-axis only by dragging only the arrowhead for that axis on the Move gizmo.
  10. Assuming step 9 was for practice, look at the second illustration on page 169 and adjust your model to look about the same. The text tells you to press the spacebar to release the Selection Lock. For me, this rarely works. I recommend that you click the Lock Selection icon instead, to see the visual confirmation that it is now turned off.
  11. Repeat the procedure above to move appropriate edges of the hand so that it resembles the illustration at the bottom of page 169.
  12. Save the file incrementally. If you do not, you will lose points when I ask to see the files.

Project Exercise 2: Creating the fingers

In this exercise, you extrude polygons to create primitive fingers.

  1. Open the file you saved above (or keep working with it, if it is still open). Select the box, then select the Polygon sub-object. Click the polygon that will become the index finger, as indicated on the bottom of page 170.
  2. A normal finger has three sections. You will follow the instructions in the text to do three extrusions for each finger. Use the Extrusion Settings button, and a sequence of extrusions for each finger.
    Extrusions for each finger
    Finger First extrusion Second extrusion Third extrusion
    index finger 60 50 40
    fore finger 70 60 50
    ring finger 60 50 40
    pinky finger 50 40 30

  3. Click Apply after setting the value for the first and second extrusion for each finger. Click OK after setting the value for the third extrusion. Then select the next polygon to extrude. (You may want to use the Orbit feature to move the hand in between selections, so you can see the next polygon.)
  4. Save incrementally.

Project Exercise 3: Creating the thumb 

  1. Start the procedure at the bottom of page 173 by selecting the indicated polygon. Make three extrusions, as you did for each finger. In this case, set the amounts to 30, 30, and 20.
  2. In this step, the authors assume you are an artist. Examine the illustration at the bottom of page 174, and move edges as necessary to make the thumb look like the one shown. As noted in step 3 above, you will need to Orbit the scene in order to select some of the edges you need to move. Remember, Undo is your friend.
  3. Save incrementally. You will need this version of the file in exercise 5.

So far, the model looks like you cut it out of a sponge with an x-acto knife. The next step adds more polygons and smoothes out the contours of the model.

Project Exercise 4: Subdivision surfaces 

  1. Select the hand. Open the Modify panel, and find the Subdivision Surface rollout. (You will be adding subdivision surfaces to the object.) Put a check in the box for Use NURMS Subdivision. (It stands for Non Uniform Rational Mesh Smooth. Aren't you glad you asked?)
    Note: If you cannot do this step, you probably did not follow directions above to convert the box to an Editable Poly. Ask in class how to correct this error on the fly.
  2. Step 2 points out that you will see an orange cage around the now smoothed object if you are in a sub-object mode. You would use the orange cage to work with the actual sub-objects in the original object.
  3. Step 3 is a warning. Before you cause a meltdown on your motherboard, read it. The default value for Iterations (it means repetitions) is 1. The higher the value you use for this property, the smoother the object might get, and the more likely it is that the program will crash.
  4. In the Subdivision Surface rollout, try turning the Isoline Display feature on and off. When it is turned off, you should see the new faces that have been added to the hand.
  5. Follow the instructions in step 5 to move a polygon on the hand in soft selection mode.

Do not save the file again at this point. Load the version you saved when you created the thumb.

Two more tools to learn in this chapter.

  • First, try the introduction to the Cut tool on pages 177 and 178. It is used to add edges to your polygons. You will use this tool again later.
  • Finally, try the Tessellate tool at the end of the chapter. This one is used to add more faces to polygons.

The Cut tool and the Tessellate tool are used in this project to add new ridges to the hand model that simulate knuckles when Use NURMS Subdivision is turned on again.

Chapter 5 jumps into its project on the first page. It begins with a new concept: what if we have some reference art that we want to put in the scene so we can see it while we are constructing our model? This project provides you with three reference images that you will add to objects in the scene.

Project: Building the Red Rocket

Project Exercise 1: Creating planes and adding materials 

This exercise starts on page 184.

  1. Start with a new file.
  2. Follow the directions to open the Customize menu, and examine the Units Setup page. The instructions tell you to set the units to Generic. You should not have to make a change, since this is the default setting. Note that this setting sets one unit in the scene equal to one inch. Why is this important? It is useful to know how big objects in the scene are in relation to the real world when you are modeling something in the real world, such as creating an effect that has to fit into a movie scene. In a game world, you need to make your scale match the scale that the game engine will use. Building to scale is easier when you have a scale.
  3. As should be familiar by now, you are instructed to create a box with the Keyboard Entry rollout. In this step, create a box whose Length=22, Width=.05, and Height=12. Leave the axis parameters at 0, and click Create.
  4. Name the first box as instructed.
  5. Create a second box in the Top Viewport with the parameters given. This one will be long and wide, but will lie flat on the floor of the scene.
  6. Create a third box as instructed.
  7. Align the boxes as instructed, and turn on Smooth & Highlights in all viewports. (F3 is the toggle for this feature.)
  8. The text tells you to navigate to the image files provided with for this project that show the finished rocket. First, adjust the viewports so that you can easily see all three boxes you have made. Selecting each viewport and clicking the Zoom Extents Selected button will work well for this. Next, use standard Windows tools to find the three image files:
    • In XP, you would open Windows Explorer and navigate to the folder they are in. (You can get there by right-clicking My Computer or the Start Button and choosing Explore.)
    • In Vista, you could click the Windows Start button, and choose Computer, then drill down to the necessary folder.
  9. Make your explorer window smaller than full screen, so you can see 3DS Max behind it. Find each file (front, top, and side), then drag and drop each one on the matching object in a 3DS Max viewport. (Note that this technique does not use the Material Editor.)
  10. Repeat and adjust as needed to complete this part of the project and save incrementally.

Project Exercise 2: Organizing the scene 

This exercise starts on page 187.

  1. Click the Select Object tool in the main toolbar. Ctrl-click each of the planes (boxes) in the scene until they are all selected. You will know they are selected when you see a white outline around them.
    Alternative method: If this is difficult for you, start by pressing the H key to bring up the Select from Scene dialog box. You can select all three objects in this dialog instead of clicking them in the scene. Click OK to close the dialog box.
  2. Click the Layer Manager button as instructed. (The balloon help for this button says Manage Layers...)
  3. Click the Create New Layer button, and name it as instructed.
  4. This step is informational. It only tells you that all the objects you selected in step 1 were automatically added to the new layer created in step 3.
  5. Open Layer Manager (if you closed it), and toggle the new layer's Freeze property by clicking the dash icon in the Freeze column. It will turn into a snowflake icon. This will freeze the boxes in the scene, which means we will not be able to change them. This is good, since they are only there for reference. Unfortunately, the images will disappear.
  6. Click the plus sign for the Image Planes layer, and you will see a list of the objects in the layer. Ctrl-click all three objects to select them. Click one of the cube icons to the left of the object names, and you will see the Object Properties dialog box, illustrated on page 188. Turn off the Show Frozen in Gray option in the lower left quarter of the dialog box.
  7. Step 7 is not just informational. It warns you that the Image Plane layer is currently selected, and that any new object you create will be added to the selected layer. We don't want our next objects to be frozen, so click the only other layer in the scene to select it, then close the Layer Manager. WARNING: the book is incorrect. Clicking the layer is not enough. Click the unnamed column for the default layer (to the right of the layer's name), and a check mark will appear in it.
  8. Save incrementally.

Project Exercise 3: Creating the body 

This exercise starts on page 188.

  1. Using the last file you saved as a starting point, create a capsule object as instructed. (Note: if the capsule is gray when you create it, you have probably created it in the Image Planes layer, not the default layer. Undo, review the instructions above, and try again.)
  2. Set the values for Sides and Height Segs as instructed in the chapter. Turn off the Smooth option, and the capsule will look a little like a 1930s dirigible.
  3. Name the object Rocket Body. Press enter after you have typed this, or the next command will not work. Press Alt-x to make the capsule transparent. (If it has a gray tone now, don't worry as long as you can see through it.)
  4. The text tells you to line up the Rocket Body with the reference images, as indicated at the bottom of page 189. It does not tell you how to do this, assuming you will know. Do you?
    Question 3: How do you align the capsule with the reference images?
  5. Convert the capsule to an editable poly as instructed.
  6. Enter vertex mode by either of the methods previously described. (The vertices will turn blue.) Select the vertex at the front tip of the rocket. This is harder than it looks. Check in all viewports to make sure you selected the right vertex. Use your mouse wheel to zoom in and out, pan if needed, and use Zoom Extents Selected as needed.
  7. This step starts out saying you should have the rocket body selected. No, you should still have the vertex selected that you clicked in the last step. Make sure you are in the Modify Panel, and open the Soft Selection rollout. Set the Falloff to 6.
    The next instructions here are not clear. (Are we surprised?)
    Click the flyout for the Scale tool, and choose the second item in the flyout, which is the Select and non-uniform Scale tool. The author is not helpful when he tells you to adjust the scale in the Front viewport. Use the Top viewport instead. Adjust the x and y handles of the gizmo independently until your rocket looks like the figure 5.14 on page 190.
  8. If you have followed my instructions above, step 8 is unnecessary.
  9. Step 9 leaves much to be desired. Read it first, then come back here.
    Look at the images at the top of page 192 to get an overview of the shape you want for the rocket. Ignore the wheel nacelles, the handlebars, and the fins. Zoom out a bit in the Top viewport, then continue using the non-uniform scale tool, with the same Soft Selection falloff. Adjust individual vertices along the length of the rocket body object, trying to make it match the contour of the reference image and the model shown on page 192.
    After you have adjusted vertices in the Top viewport, change to the Left viewport and adjust vertices there. (Don't worry about the right side of the rocket, because we will delete that and mirror the left side shortly.)
  10. Go to Polygon mode, and use an area selection to select the polygons that form the tail of the rocket body, as indicated on page 191. Press the Delete key to cut them from the model.
  11. Save incrementally.

Project Exercise 4: Smoothing the body 

This exercise starts on page 192.

  1. Make sure you are on the Modify panel (you should be). Find and open the Subdivision Surface rollout, near the bottom of the rollout list. Turn on Use NURMS Subdivision.
  2. Switch to Polygon mode (if you are not in it). In the Top viewport, use an area selection to select the polygons on the right side of the model. You will find that you do not need to marquee select the middle of the rocket body to do this. When you have selected the indicated polygons, delete them.
  3. Select the editable poly object in the Modifier list. Click the Mirror tool. In the Mirror tool dialog box, use the setting indicated in the text: x-axis and reference.
    Question 4: What is the purpose of making a reference clone of the left side of the rocket body?
  4. Select and name the two body objects as instructed. You may find it easier to use the H key to bring up the Select from Scene feature rather than trying to click the two objects.
  5. It will be easier to do this step if you select both halves of the rocket body first, then create the new layer you are told make. This way they will both be added to it automatically.
  6. Freeze the reference clone portion of the rocket body as instructed.
  7. Save incrementally. You may want to tweak the shape of the body object more at this point, moving and scaling vertices and polygons. Just like computer gaming, incremental saves let you travel in time. So does the undo button.

Project Exercise 5: Adding detail to the body 

This exercise starts on page 193.

  1. Open the Layer Manager. Hide the Image Plane layer, as instructed, by clicking the dash in its Hide column. The dash will turn into a mask icon.
  2. The author seems to have a problem describing which viewport to use. He says you will use the top and side views, but his illustration shows the top and front views. His directions through page 195 are unclear. We will continue with the project by loading his prepared file in the next exercise, which will present its own problem.

Project Exercise 6: Creating the wheel well 

This exercise starts on page 196.

  1. Load the file Rocket_01.max from the supplied project files. This would be a good time to do a Save As, saving it locally and renaming the file as your own.
    Note that when the file loads, 3DS Max will not know where to find the jpg reference files. The correction for this problem is not in the text, so follow these directions for a bit. When this problem crops up, it will be due to files not being located in the directory that 3DS Max expects them to be in, or files having names that are not spelled the way your scene expects them to be spelled. Strangely, this file name problem can be caused by changes in capitalization. Fix the problem this way:
    1. Use the Browse button on the Missing External Files window that appears. That will open the Configure External File Paths window.
    2. Click the Add button, then navigate to the folder that holds the reference files.
    3. When you see the files, click the first one, then click Use Path.
    4. Click Add again, click the second reference file, and click Use Path.
    5. Click Add a third time, click the third reference file, and click Use Path again.
    6. After adding the path to all three files, click OK on the Configure window.
    Follow the first instruction on page 196 by selecting the Rocket Body ORIG object. (Note that the author refers to the editable poly as a mesh. He is just being generic. It has to be a poly to have the properties he wants to use.)
    The text says to switch to polygon subobject mode, and to select the three polygons indicated at the bottom of page 196. I found that these polygons were already selected, and so should you.
  2. Click the Extrude Settings button (remember it has no label), and don't be alarmed by what immediately happens. (The rocket may suddenly grow huge fins.) The program is just repeating whatever settings were used last. Change the settings to Group and .8 and click OK. (Note: that number has a decimal point in front of it. Watch out for decimal points and negative signs in this project and other projects.)
  3. The text says to select all the polygons that were created in the last step. There are eight of them: one in front, one in back, three along the top, and three along the bottom. Wiggle the viewports as needed to select only these eight polygons.
    Use the Move and Rotate tools to adjust the new structure so that it lines up with the reference image wheel wells.
    In the image on the right, I have adjusted it in the Top viewport. It is useful in any operation of this type to adjust the subobject in several views. As you were warned in another chapter, do not rely on the Perspective viewport in making these adjustments. Always confirm the position of an adjusted object or subobject by viewing it in orthographic viewports.

  4. Switch to Vertex subobject mode. The text is a bit unclear again. Select the four vertices that form the lower, outer edge of the wheel well. In the image below, I have indicated the vertices with a red ellipse. In this image, I have already moved them out and down, as indicated in the text.

Moving to page 198, the illustrations in the text have inexplicably changed. The wheel well now has four polygons across instead of the three we were told to use. Following the illustration as best as I could, I adjusted the inner and outer vertices on the wheel well. Adjust yours as well.

Project Exercise 7: Carving the wheel well 

This exercise starts on page 198.

  1. If you turned on NURMS to see the progress so far, turn it off again.
  2. Select polygon subobject mode. Select only the polygons on the bottom of the wheel well. (There should be three.)
  3. Find the Edit Polygons rollout of the Modify panel. Use the Inset Setting value given: .1. This will create an edge for the wheel well. Use the Extrusion Settings dialog to set Extrusion Height to -.7. (Note the negative sign and the decimal point.)
  4. Examine the wheel well to make sure the extruded polygons are not poking through the shell of the wheel well. If they are, move vertices as necessary to correct the problem.
  5. Turn on NURMS. Rotate a viewport as needed to see the effect, and do a Quick Render, called Production Render in version 2010 (teapot button). Note, in the image below, my work on the left wheel well was copied to the right wheel well automatically, as yours should have been.

    Question 5: How was the right wheel well created?
  6. Save, but be careful NOT to overwrite one of the supplied scene files.

Project Exercise 8: Creating the control panel 

This exercise starts on page 199.

  1. If you are continuing from the last save (you should be), turn off NURMS again. Step 1 in the text has no instructions. It informs you that you will be using the Connect tool to make a new edge. Be aware that the first two images on page 200 are also just background information.
  2. Use the Top viewport. Change to edge subobject mode, as instructed. and click the edge indicated in the third illustration on page 200. Find the Ring button in the Selection rollout of the Modify panel, and click it. This was discussed in a previous lesson. Now we will use the feature.
  3. Find the Edit Edges rollout. It should be two rollouts below the one you just used. Click the Connect button and watch the new set of edges appear. They will bisect all the selected edges.
  4. Step 4 has no procedural instructions, just information.
  5. Still in edge subobject mode, click one of the horizontal edges that connect to the center of the rocket body, as shown in figure 5.40 on page 201. It does not matter which edge you select, as long as it is one that connects directly to the center line. Click Ring again, to select the set of all edges that connect to this line. Click the Connect button again to bisect all of those edges with a new line. Note that this line does not continue to the underside of the rocket body.
  6. Follow the instructions in the text to use the Cut tool to continue the new line to the tip of the rocket. You may find it easier to hide the Image Planes layer first, so you can see the tip of rocket more clearly.
  7. Follow the instructions to move vertices as necessary to model the control panel.
  8. Switch to polygon subobject mode, and select the polygons for the control panel.
  9. Find the Edit Polygons rollout. Click the Extrude Settings button. Use the settings in the text: Group and 1.
    Read the description of the problem that this action creates.
  10. Delete the three new polygons as described on page 203.
  11. Switch to vertex mode and carefully move vertices in the Top viewport to solve the problem.
  12. Continue adjusting vertices to model the control panel. Use all viewports to get the best fit you can.
  13. Turn on NURMS again. Do a Quick Render, and see where you need to adjust the model further.
  14. Make final adjustments for this stage and save incrementally. Show me this model version before continuing.

The next exercise starts on page 206. Note that the author uses a reference image on that page that has not been supplied to us: the underside of the vehicle. It is possible to continue this model by looking at the image in the book, but we need to move ahead to other topics in the chapter. We will skip ahead to page 214.

Project Exercise: Creating the thruster 

This exercise starts on page 214. It uses the Lathe modifier, which we saw in chapter 4. There is a better introduction to this tool on page 214 than there was in chapter 4, which you should read for background.

  1. Load the file specified on page 214. Save it with a new name that includes your initials, to differentiate it from the original.
    The instructions begin with telling you to use the Line tool (Create Panel, Create Shapes, Line) to draw the shape illustrated on page 215. The author is still not giving you a lesson on drawing 2D shapes, so it is valid to use the technique in the gray box on page 215: Merging. When you are working on a team project, you will need this technique that allows you to add objects from other scene files into the one you are working on. Follow the instructions in the gray box to add the specified object from the specified file to your scene. Once it has been merged, the new object is part of your file. Save incrementally.
  2. Select the Exhaust Profile Line object, and add a Lathe modifier to it. The text advises that the initial appearance of any lathed object may not be correct. The problem comes from which edge the object has been rotated around. This is addressed next.
  3. In the modifier list, select the Lathe object. Look for its parameters in the rollout list. Find the Align section and click the Min button. (If you had not been told which button to choose, you should have clicked one of the buttons here, then clicked Undo if the choice was incorrect, and moved on to the next button. Different combinations of Min, Center, Max, X, Y, and Z give different results.)
  4. In this step, you are told to be careful. Do that, or you may have to go back to that save I told you to make in step 1. Minimize the hole in the object as instructed, and remember that you will Cap it later.
  5. Change the Lathe Segments to 20 to make it look smoother. The discussion here reminds you that a model does not need more detail than the intended use dictates. We do not know the intended use, so we will trust the author.
    Question 6: Describe the difference in detail you would expect to need if you were a) creating the model for a medium shot in an online catalog, or b) creating the model to be used in Toy Story 3.
  6. Name the object as instructed, and use the Help system in 3DS Max to find a procedure for adding it to the Rocket layer.
    Question 7: Write a summary of the steps to add an object to a layer.
  7. Move the Thruster object to its proper location on the model. Save your scene incrementally.

On page 216, the text introduces the concept of Boolean operations. Boolean operations work with the addition, subtraction, or intersection of objects. It will be helpful to think about standard geometry diagrams when thinking about these definitions of Boolean operations:

  • Subtraction - an object made by removing a shape from another shape. In the image on the right, the overlapping portion of object B has been subtracted from object A. The result is only the red portion of object A in this case.

  • Intersection - the common volume formed by two objects that overlap in some way. In the image on the right, only the intersection of the two objects is shaded. The result is only the blue portion of the objects in this case.

  • Union - the total volume of two objects, including any intersection. In the image on the right, the union of the two objects includes each object and the intersection. No volume is represented twice. The lines defining the intersection have been lost. Another way to think of it is that all hidden edges are lost.

  • Merge - like a Union, but all edges of the objects are retained.

Obviously, you have to create multiple objects in a scene to combine them like this. To adjust the Thruster, you will want to scoop out several portions of it with Subtraction operations. You will use the ProBoolean tool, an improved version of the original Boolean tool in 3DS Max.

Project Exercise: Using Booleans for the thruster detail

This exercise starts on page 217. In several of the steps, the text provides values to use for Chamfer, Fillet, and Extrusion. In the real world, an object you are modeling will not be labeled with such values. You should use the values provided for the exercise, but you should also experiment carefully in these steps, to develop an eye for what various values of such settings actually do.

  1. Use your file from the exercise above or open the file indicated just above step 1. Use the Layer Manager to hide the Image Planes layer and the fins (we did not do the exercise to make them).
  2. Use Keyboard Entry to create a rectangle with length .74 and width .42. Move it into the position shown in figure 5.75. You will be able to see it initially in the Perspective viewport. Move it until you can see it properly in the Top viewport.
  3. Convert the rectangle to an Editable Spline as instructed.
  4. Choose Vertex subobject mode. You will probably do best to work in the Top viewport, close to the rectangle. Select both of the bottom two vertices of the rectangle. You will Chamfer them to resemble figure 5.77 by finding the Geometry rollout, and entering a value of 0.04 for Chamfer. (Note: this did not work for me until I entered the leading zero. If you make the same mistake, or choose the wrong vertices, undo and try again.)
  5. Move each of the top two vertices in the rectangle (one at a time!) just a little bit toward each other. After you have moved them, select both of them, and enter a value of 0.1 for Fillet. (If it does not look like figure 5.78, undo and start over.
  6. Select the spline object in the modifier stack to leave subobject mode.
    The text offers to let you skip more steps by merging an object into the scene. That would be nice if you had one, but you should also know how to do this yourself.
  7. Add an Extrude Modifier to the spline. Set the extrusion amount to 0.4 as instructed.
  8. Move the extruded object and indicated by figure 5.79 at the top of page 219. It should intersect the thruster as shown in the pictures at the top of page 219.
    Before you do anything else, be aware that the Back and Front views of the file from the text are reversed. Just use whatever view you need to use to work with the objects.
  9. You will be cloning the detail object to seven move spots on the thruster, but before you do, you need to adjust the pivot point for the object, which affects how it is cloned. Step 9 says to select the thruster. This is wrong. Select the detail object you just made instead. Then, open the Hierarchy panel and click Affect Pivot Point Only.
  10. The instruction to use the Align tool seems to have no effect. Follow the instruction, but use the Move tool to move the pivot point to the center of the thruster. Be as exact as you can.
  11. Turn off the Affect Pivot Point Only switch. Press A to turn on Angle Snap. (You'll see why in a moment.)
    Switch to the Rotate tool. Hold a shift key down as you rotate the detail object 45 degrees around the thruster, either clockwise or counter clockwise. As you drag it along the rotational axis, watch the axis, and you will see that the rotation is constrained to increments of 5 degrees. (That's what the Angle Snap was for.) Since you held the shift key down while rotating the object, you initiated a cloning sequence. In the dialog box. tell it that you want 7 clones, and you want them to be copies. This should result in a total of 8 detail objects distributed evenly around the circumference of the thruster.
  12. Select the thruster itself. (The book is right this time.) Follow the instructions in the text to create a Proboolean object with the thruster as the base. Click the Start Picking button, and note that the default kind of Proboolean object is a Subtraction, which is what you want.
    You will need to adjust the view in one or more viewports to select each of the detail objects. As you click each one, the Subtraction operation will remove the object and the portion of the thruster that it intersected.
  13. Unhide the other rocket parts and save incrementally.

That's enough for this project. Next we will look at mapping again, using the Red Rocket as a model.